In the Train-Place model, the worker trains for a job in the classroom or sheltered workshop. The idea is to ready the worker, teach skills and behaviors transferable to the job site, and use isolation to help the learning process. In reality, this model, often used in sheltered workshops, has resulted in low placement rates, low wages, and social isolation.
Many organizations still use this model, which is especially useful in teaching appropriate workplace behavior. Workshop supervisors, for instance, have found many behaviors important for work success, including: Appearing at a job station on time and without prompting, responding immediately to an instruction, working continuously on a task, not initiating inappropriate contact, working independently, and not displaying tantrums.
The Place-Train model places the worker in a specific, competitive job and then a staff person trains the worker to do the job. Learning is direct and not overly dependent on generalization. Because the job is in competitive industry, wages are higher and the worker is surrounded by co-workers. Social skills training also take on more importance because the worker is in a non-sheltered environment.
A modification of this model is the General Place-Train model. Here, the first step is to examine the community for possible jobs and contact likely employers for a list of job requirements. Next, the worker's skills, including level of independent living, are measured. Necessary technical and social skills are taught for pre-placement training. At this point, the employer is contacted about possible placement and job matching is done. The critical phase is on-site job training with a job coach who eventually withdraws from the training. By that time, a weekly pay check, supervisors, co-workers, and self-monitoring kick in for reinforcement. The job coach continues to monitor the worker's progress through records and contacts with the company, family, and worker.
Problems with this model are the dependence on the job coach, lack of vocational assessment, training expense, and the assumption that this model fits every situation.
For more information, contact: the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Rehabilitation Programs to Improve Employment Outcomes, the University of Wisconsin-Stout, Stout Vocational Rehabilitation Institute, Menomonie, WI 54751, (715) 232-1389, RTC Web site
This research was supported by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research in the U.S. Department of Education. #136
Botterbusch, K. F. (1989). Models for competitive employment. InUnderstanding community based employment and follow-up services, (pp. 1-9). Menomonie, WI: University of Wisconsin-Stout, Stout Vocational Rehabilitation Institute, Research and Training Center on Community Rehabilitation Programs to Improve Employment Outcomes.
Copyright. The Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Independent Living.